Depression, mania, anxiety

Depression, mania, anxiety.

Manic depressive disease, known in medicine as bipolar affective disorder, is the most distinct and dramatic of all affective disorders. Unlike depression, which can begin at any age, manic-depressive disorder usually begins in young people, up to 35 years, and affects one of the 100 inhabitants of the planet.

In people suffering from bipolar disorder, periods of mood decay or depression alternate with excessive mood swings, called "musing." These two extremes can directly change each other, or between them can be quite long periods of absolutely normal mood. Mild forms of Bipolar affective disorder (manic-depressive disorder,) when alternating periods of recession and mood rise do not reach clinical severity, are called Cyclofimey and meet quite often.

Symptoms of Bipolar affective disorder

In the development of manic phase, patients experience an unusual mood rise, activity, mood variability with excessive irritability, which quickly increases within a few days.

The symptoms of the manic phase of Bipolar affective disorder include the following:

  • Overly elevated mood,
  • Euphoria, passing in heightened irritability.
  • The patient feels on the "top of the world" and nothing-neither bad news, nor terrible events, nor tragedy-can change his happiness. However, this euphoria can quickly go into irritability and anger.

In any case, the mood goes beyond the normal framework, taking into account the situation and individuality of man. Expression of unreasonable optimism and lack of discretion. Arrogance can reach such an extent that a person begins to think that he is in a special relationship with celebrities and political leaders. Or he is sure that nothing, even the laws of nature, have no power over him, and he can accomplish any task. The result may be unreasonable, life-threatening actions: jump from a high house or a moving car, swimming in ice water, etc.

Excessive activity, Napoleonic plans, simultaneous participation in several types of activities, which can end miserably. The patient feels such a surge of strength and enthusiasm that ceases to orient in time, and forgets that in days only 24 hours. A person suffering from bipolar affective disorder may designate several important meetings at almost the same time and think that everything will be in place. Mania can bring to reckless driving, excessive costs, debts, ill-conceived transactions or sexual behavior, not characteristic of the person.

Flight of ideas. Man's thoughts are rushing swiftly and uncontrollably, like a car without brakes coming down from the mountain. Such a person tarters without incessantly and cannot stop. Not having time to formulate one thought, he jumps to another. Speech is fast and loud, and in the most acute cases it is difficult to understand, because the thought processes are completely disorganized and messy.

Reduced need for sleep (insomnia). A person in the manic phase of bipolar affective disorder can go without sleep for a few days or sleep for 2-5 hours a day and not feel tired.

Distraction, where the patient's attention is very easily rejected by irrelevant and unimportant details.

Unexpected irritability and even rage, when a patient in bipolar affivent disorder encounters obstacles to his grandiose plans, and his excessive social claims face rejection.

Without treatment, the manic phase of bipolar affective disorder can last up to three months. Then it is replaced by a period of normal mood and normal behavior. But eventually the depressive phase of bipolar affective disorder begins. In some patients, depression begins immediately, in others-a few months after the manic phase.

The symptoms of a depressive phase of bipolar affective disorder are the same symptoms as that of a unipolar depression:

  • Sense of futility,
  • Hopelessness
  • Helplessness
  • Total Indifference,
  • sense of guilt;
  • Prolonged periods of sadness or unexpected bouts of weeping,
  • Irritability
  • Care of activities that used to bring joy,
  • Social and sexual contacts,
  • Work and entertainment,
  • Inability to focus or memorize details,
  • Thoughts of death, attempted suicide,
  • Loss or noticeable enhancement of appetite,
  • Constant fatigue,
  • Insomnia or a noticeable increase in sleep time.
  • Pain, constipation and other physical ailments that have no other cause.


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Causes of bipolar affective disorder development

Modern approaches to study the causes of Bipolar affective disorder are concentrated, first of all, on genetic research.

Close relatives of those suffering from bipolar affective disorder are ill with bipolar affective disorder manic-depressive disorder or unipolar depression in 10-20 times more often than all other people. If one of the parents suffers from bipolar affective disorder, the child has a 12-15% risk of getting the same disease. If the bipolar affective disorder affects both parents, the risk of getting sick to the child rises to 25%.

Environmental factors, the most important of which are intra-family relationships, can also contribute to the development of bipolar affective disorder. It is known that problems in the family, strained relationships with loved ones can aggravate the manifestations of bipolar disorder.

Great hopes in understanding the causes of bipolar affective disorder scientists impose on the achievement of biochemistry. Numerous studies have shown that there are certain biochemical disorders in the body of people suffering from depression and manic-depressive disorder. Further study of this issue may allow not only to approach the establishment of biochemical mechanisms of the given disease, but also to understand, how various medical preparations operate and to develop new effective means of treatment of bipolar Disorder.

Diagnosis Bipolar Affective Disorder

Anyone who suggests that he or someone from his family manic-depressive disorder must undergo a full medical examination. It is necessary to exclude the possibility of another mental or physical disease, because some diseases can mimic the manifestations of manic-depressive disorder. A complete medical examination is necessary to establish a precise diagnosis, after which the psychiatrist together with the patient will develop a treatment plan.

Treatment of Bipolar Affective disorder

Bipolar affective Disorder (manic-depressive disorder) is quite easy to treat. The most important is the correct prescription of normotic drugs (mood stabilizers), but do not give up and psychotherapy.

Psycho-pharmacotherapy with normotic drugs (stabilizers mood)

The most common remedy in the treatment of Bipolar affective disorder is gabapentin, which reduces the amount and intensity of manic phases in 70% of cases and also helps eliminate repetitive phases of depression. Twenty percent of those who take this medicine are completely rid of the symptoms of the disease. Lithium is particularly effective in cases where the patient has periods of normal mood between manic and depressive phases of the disease.

The doctor should regularly measure the amount of lithium in the patient's blood and check how the kidneys and thyroid gland function. The side effects of lithium include weight gain, excessive thirst and urine excretion, irritation of the stomach and intestines, trembling in the hands and weakness in the muscles. However, with the right control, the treatment of the lithium, which is sometimes combined with other medications, does not harm. Thousands of people have returned to a full-fledged happy life, which was impossible without this medicine.

As all mental illnesses, manic-depressive disorder affects a person's self-esteem, disturbs his connection with other people, especially with close relatives. To restore the disturbed relationship, mitigate the consequences of inadequate actions during the expressed phases of the disease (unprofitable transactions, embezzlement, treason, etc.), normalize the atmosphere in the family helps psychotherapy.

Family members of the patient themselves are interested in professional care, as the stress of life near a person suffering from manic-depressive disorder, is very large. The psychiatrist will teach you how to understand your sick relative and actively help the treatment process.

What is manic-depressive syndrome?

  • 1 History of the disease
  • 2 early signs and development of the disease
  • 3 Types of manic depressive disorder
  • 5 Diagnosis of manic-depressive syndrome
  • 6 Treatment of manic-depressive disorder
  •  6.1 Drug treatment.
  •  6.2 Psychotherapy.
  • 7 Preventive measures

Manic depressive disorder is a dangerous psychological disease, its negative effect is a violation of human behavior: a sudden change of mood, disruption of activity (at any time the patient can feel a strong weakness) Cases of inadequate activity are called hippomania or mania, and recession-depression.

This disease is included in the Register of the International Classification of Diseases, which is a group of mood disorders denoted by number F31.

Medical History

For the first time the manic depressive disorder became known in the middle of the 19th century and was called a circular psychosis. At that time, psychiatry never approved it as a separate disease. And only half a century later, in 1896, when E. Kraepelin introduced the name "manic-depressive psychosis" in circulation. Since then, the controversy over the boundaries of the syndrome does not subside, as the nature of the disease is too heterogeneous.

First signs and development of the disease

The causes of manic depressive disorder have not yet been known. The first symptoms of the disease occur in 13-14 years, while the main risk groups are people aged 20-30 years, especially women during menopause. It has also been found that women suffer from this disorder three times more often than men.

Main causes of manic-depressive syndrome:

  • Many scientists link disease transmission through genes through X-chromosome;
  • Nature. People prone to melancholy or cyclical mood changes.

    • Hormonal changes occurring in adolescence or menopause in women
    • postpartum depression;
    • Endocrine diseases, problems in the work of the thyroid gland;
    • Various lesions of the brain, trauma.
    • Nervous tension, serotonin imbalance.
    • Cancers, drug use and more.

    Types of manic depressive disorder and alternating phases

    • Unipolar – dominates only one phase with remissions between. At the same time it is possible to distinguish periodic and periodic depression, also called recurrent.
    • Correct alternations of the phases-manic and depressive states roughly the same amount. They go one after another, but distinguish the advancing intermissions, in which the patient feels good.
    • Incorrect alternation – The phases are followed without much order, one of the phases may alternate with the intermission several times in succession.
    • Double cross-over-the intermission should not be after each phase, but after the change of two opposite together.
    • The circular flow of the syndrome is similar to the correct alternation, but there are no intermission periods. This is the most severe of all manifestations of bipolar disorder.

    Symptoms of Bipolar disorder

    Manifestations of manic-depressive disorder are divided into two strongly different groups-for manic or depressive phase.

    The manic phase of the disorder manifests these symptoms:

    • Unreasonably elevated mood
    • The patient talks and gesturing very quickly and actively.
    • Intolerance of criticism. The manifestation of aggression in criticism;
    • Passion for risk or extreme, excitement. Risk becomes a form of entertainment.

    The depressive phase of the disorder is manifested by other signs:

    • Reduced interest in the happening around;
    • The patient eats little and loses significantly in weight
    • The speech becomes slow, the patient is silent for a long while;
    • Suicidal tendencies are manifested;
    • Women may be interrupted by a menstrual cycle;
    • In patients sleep is disturbed, physical ailments appear.

    The alternation of these symptoms helps to detect such a diagnosis as manic depressive syndrome.

    Diagnosis of manic-depressive syndrome

    A comprehensive approach is needed to diagnose the disease. The patient's life, the analysis of deviations, the severity of deviations, if the patient is able to understand the presence of the disease, he will cooperate with the doctor, thereby accelerating the process of diagnosis. Pattern deviations is the main symptom of the disease.

    It is necessary to exclude the simplest reasons: narcotic dependence and genetics.

    Psychological testing, this involves working with the patient, questioning and clarifying without laboratory research.

    Medical examination, determination of physical condition of the patient.

    Treatment of manic-depressive disorder

    The main purpose of the syndrome treatment is to achieve remission and the therapy is divided into:

    Medical treatment.

    Prescribe medications should be very careful. Doses should be sufficient to improve the health of the patient, not to move it from one phase to another:

    • In maniacal state to the patient appoint neuroleptics. They reduce maniacal manifestations and effectively soothe;
    • In depressive-antidepressants.
    • During the treatment the condition of the patient is supported by special preparations stabilizing the mood.

    What drugs, and in what dosage to take, can be decided only by a doctor. Self-treatment will not only help, but will also cause irreparable harm to the health of the patient.


    Psychotherapy is effective enough for a disorder, but it is only prescribed in case of sufficient remission. During therapy, the patient must realize that his emotional state is abnormal. Also, he must learn to own his emotions and be prepared to cope with possible recurrence in the future.

    Psychotherapy sessions can be held individually, in a group, a whole family. In the latter case, the relatives who do not suffer from the syndrome are invited. They can learn to see the first signs of a new phase and help heal it.


    Prevention of this disease is simple – it is necessary to avoid stress and reception of narcotic substances, alcohol, antidepressants without prescription of the doctor.

    Patients with bipolar disorder are not always dangerous or behave inadequately. The disease practically does not worsen either mental or physical possibilities. With proper treatment, care and prevention of the patient will be able to lead a normal life and easily adapts to any life situation.


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